SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) is a secure file protocol that is used to access, manage, and transfer files over an encrypted SSH transport.
When compared with the traditional FTP protocol, SFTP offers all the functionality of FTP, but it is more secure and easier to configure.
Unlike SCP , which supports only file transfers, the SFTP allows you to perform a range of operations on remote files and resume file transfers.
In this tutorial, we will show you how to use the Linux
Before you Begin
To be able to transfer files via SFTP you must have write permission on the remote system.
The directory from where you run the
sftp command is the local working directory.
Don’t confuse SFTP with FTPS. Both protocol serve the same purpose. However, FTPS stands for FTP Secure, and it is an extension to the standard FTP protocol with support for TLS.
Establishing an SFTP connection
SFTP works on a client-server model. It is a subsystem of SSH and supports all SSH authentication mechanisms.
To open an SFTP connection to a remote system, use the
sftp command followed by the remote server username and the IP address or domain name:
If you are connecting to the host using password authentication, you will be prompted to enter the user password.
Once connected, you will be presented with the
sftp prompt, and you can start interacting with the remote server:
Connected to remote_username@server_ip_or_hostname. sftp>
If the remote SSH server is not listening on the default port 22 , use the
-P option to specify the SFTP port:
sftp -P custom_port remote_username@server_ip_or_hostname
Most of the SFTP commands are similar or identical to the Linux shell commands.
To get a list of all available SFTP commands, type
This will output a long list of all available commands, including a short description of each command:
Available commands: bye Quit sftp cd path Change remote directory to 'path' ... ... version Show SFTP version !command Execute 'command' in local shell ! Escape to local shell ? Synonym for help
Navigating with SFTP #
When you are logged in to the remote server, your current working directory is the remote user home directory. You can check that by typing:
Remote working directory: /home/remote_username
To list the files and directories, use the
To navigate to another directory, use the
cd command. For example, to switch to the
/tmp directory you would type:
The above commands are used to navigate, and work on the remote location.
The SFTP shell also provides commands for local navigation, information and file management. The local commands are prefixed with the letter
For example, to print the local working directory, you would type:
Local working directory: /home/local_username
Transferring Files with SFTP
SFTP allows you to transfer files between two machines securely.
sftp command is useful when you work on a server without GUI, and you want to transfer files or perform other operations on the remote files.
Downloading Files with the SFTP Command #
To download a single file from the remote server, use the
The output should look something like this:
Fetching /home/remote_username/filename.zip to filename.zip /home/remote_username/filename.zip 100% 24MB 1.8MB/s 00:13
When downloading files with
sftp, the files are downloaded to the directory from which you typed the
If you want to save the downloaded file with a different name, specify the new name as the second argument:
get filename.zip local_filename.zip
To download a directory from the remote system, use the recursive
get -r remote_directory
If a file transfer fails or is interrupted, you can resume it using the
The syntax of
reget is the same as the syntax of
Uploading Files with the SFTP Command
To upload a file from the local machine to the remote SFTP server, use the
The output should look something like this:
Uploading filename.zip to /home/remote_username/filename.zip filename.zip 100% 12MB 1.7MB/s 00:06
If the file you want to upload is not located in your current working directory, use the absolute path to the file.
When working with
put you can use the same options that are available with the
To upload a local directory, you would type:
put -r locale_directory
To resume an interrupted upload:
File Manipulations with SFTP
Typically, to perform tasks on a remote server, you would connect to it via SSH and do your work using the shell terminal. However, in some situations, the user may have only SFTP access to the remote server.
SFTP allows you to perform some basic file manipulation commands. Below are some examples of how to use the SFTP shell:
- Get information about the remote system’s disk usage :
Size Used Avail (root) %Capacity 20616252 1548776 18002580 19067476 7%Copy
- Create a new directory on the remote server:
- Rename a file on the remote server:
rename file_name new_file_nameCopy
- Delete a file on the remote server:
- Delete a directory on the remote server:
- Change the permissions of a file on the remote system:
chmod 644 file_nameCopy
- Change the owner of a file on the remote system:
chown user_id file_nameCopyYou must supply the user ID to the
- Change the group owner of a remote file with:
chgrp group_id file_nameCopy
Once you are done with your work, close the connection by typing
In this tutorial, we have shown you how to use the
sftp command to download and upload files to your remote SFTP server.
You may also want to set up an SSH key-based authentication and connect to your Linux servers without entering a password. If you are regularly connecting to the same systems, you can simplify your workflow by defining all of your connections in the SSH config file .
Feel free to leave a comment if you have any questions or feedback. [/blur]